Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: reciprocal social interaction skills; communication skills; or the presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities. PDD may include the following diagnosis: Autistic Disorder, Rhett’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
- Marked impairment in nonverbal behaviors such as eye to eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction; may manifest in poor communication skills with faculty, difficulty expressing one’s needs, inability to effectively participate in group or oral assignments, may unintentionally make inappropriate comments
- Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to age level; may manifest in difficulty communicating with peers in class, in leisure activities, and in group settings.
- Lack of social or emotional reciprocity; may manifest in difficulty working in groups, a lack of engagement in topics others are interested in
- Delay in or total lack of the development of spoken language; may manifest in difficulty expressing oneself and one’s needs without use of an alternative communication device
- Inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines and rituals; may manifest in problem behaviors, inability to adapt to and/or cope with changes in routine such as: class schedule, class expectations, class assignments
- Stereotyped or repetitive motor mannerisms (hand or finger flapping, twisting or complex whole body movements); may manifest with interruptions to class lectures, difficulty sitting for long periods of time, reactions to stressful information/situation
- Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects; may manifest in person getting “stuck” on a topic or object and needing cues to move on
- Alternative format - text books and print materials can be formatted into an alternative format
- Alternative testing arrangements- extra time; less distracting environment; provision of a reader/scribe; and use of a computer, including adaptive software and hardware.
- Note taking support
- Priority registration
Assistive Technology Accommodations
Teaching Strategies—What Can Faculty do?
Specific Strategies per Disability
- Allow Frequent Breaks
- Allow the student to take small, frequent breaks.
- Break Large Amounts of Information or instructions into smaller segments
- Provide Notice of Changes to the class routine or classroom environment
- If there is a change in the classroom environment, class assignments, class schedule or any other change in routine; give the student advance notice so as to allow time for him/her to prepare for and become accustomed to the change in advance.
- Reinforce Directions and Key course content visually
- Allow Student to Take Test(s) in a different location with fewer distractions
- The Disability Service Office will assist students in providing alternative arrangements.
- Take into Consideration the Student’s lack of ability to interpret social cues
- Students with PDD often have difficulty interpreting sarcasm, idioms and body language. They interpret information very literally. If using these types of communication modes, reframe the information for the student by using an alternative, more literal (whenever possible), type of explanation.
- Ask the Student to Collect or pass out items
- This allows them an opportunity to move around the classroom.
- Provide Accessible Course Materials
- Ensure that all curriculum materials (syllabus, notes, presentations, assignments, etc.) are available in an accessible format that can be used and manipulated by a computer (Word, HTML, RTF, PDF, etc.). To learn how to create accessible materials, see Training Modules and Tutorials on this website.
- Plan Ahead
- Select textbooks and materials needed for the semester as early as possible. Students with disabilities will need time to take class materials to the Disability Service Office for conversion to an alternative format.
- Provide Structure
- Provide a syllabus and class assignments with clearly delineated expectations and due dates.
- Provide Guided Notes on the Web
- Prior to lectures, provide students with consistent, structured notes that are in an accessible format. Since students with disabilities sometimes have more difficulty than others in processing new information (especially while simultaneously trying to take notes), having notes ahead of time will increase students’ ability to follow along during class and more effectively process course content. If it is not acceptable for all students to have lecture notes ahead of time, make alternative arrangements for students with disabilities such as emailing lecture notes to the student(s) or setting up an office mailbox where the student(s) can receive notes ahead of time.
- Provide Multiple Methods of Presentation
- Present information and ideas in multiple ways in order to address different learning styles.
- Engage students in multiple ways of learning
- Incorporate active teaching/learning methods where possible. For example, problem-based learning activities, community projects, in-class activities and discussions, etc.
- Encourage Multiple Methods of Expression
- Offer more than one way for students to demonstrate what they have learned in class. For example, students can be given a choice between taking a test, writing a paper, giving an oral presentation, producing a video, etc. Additionally, keep in mind that some students may have difficulty working in a group. Alternative ways of completing a group assignment may need to be considered.
- Repeat or paraphrase questions and responses so that the whole class can hear.
- This is especially important in large classrooms and when a microphone is used during live and taped presentations.
- Highlight Key Points
- Provide an overview when introducing a new topic, and highlight key points in a variety of ways throughout class lessons and in written materials. Use visual, verbal and interactive cues for added emphasis. This helps students know what to expect and what is most important, thus improving their ability to achieve the learning objectives.
- Summarize Key Points
- Summarizing key points at the end of each class will increase the student’s ability to process and integrate new information.
- Chunk Information
- Break large amounts of information or instructions into smaller segments (“chunking”).
- Provide Study Aids
- Provide study questions, study guides, and opportunities for questions and answers to help students review and clarify essential course content.
- Allow the use of digital recorders
- Provide students the opportunity to process and review class material at their own pace, both after class and later during the semester. Review of material in this manner is especially helpful in preparation for mid-term and final exams.
- Engage with Students who Self Advocate
- Team up with students with disabilities (who disclose their accommodation needs) to determine a plan that is effective for all involved.
Shaping the Environment
- Decrease Classroom Distractions
- Decrease any excessive visual and/or auditory distractions in the learning environment.
- Consider Seating and Positioning
- Encourage the student to sit in the front of the class, away from doors, air conditioning units, windows, or any other possible sources of distraction.
- Create a Calming Environment
- If possible, turn off fluorescent lights and provide natural lighting. Decrease extraneous distracting stimuli. Maintain routine whenever possible such as consistently placing course materials in the same location.
Learning Strategies—What Can the Student do?
- Advocate for self
- Connect with the disability service office to learn about available services and supports. Communicate with instructors about personal learning style and any individual accommodations that are being requested. Students should also be encouraged to read the ACCESS Self-Advocacy Handbook for College Students with Disabilities, available on this website.
- Peer Support
- Seek the peer support of other students with disabilities. Check with the Disability Service Office to find out about peer support groups. Seek out classmates (who are respectful of your learning needs) to study with.
- Record Class Lectures
- Ask professors for permission to record class lectures
- Bring Snacks, a Water Bottle or small squeezable object
- This can help to reduce fidgeting and maintain focus
- Take Small Frequent Breaks
- Self-monitor and take breaks as needed. Discuss this with professors at the start of the semester in order to make sure that it is acceptable and will not be perceived as rude behavior.
Resources — Pervasive Developmental Disorder
- The West Virginia Autism Training Center
- Information about a model college program for students with Asperger Syndrome
- Understanding Asperger Syndrome: A Professor’s Guide
- A 12 minute video covering a concise introduction to the life of a college student with Asperger Syndrome.
- The Global and Regional Asperger Syndrome Partnership (GRASP)
- General information and an array of resource links.
- A Global Information and Support Network for More Advanced Persons with Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome & Pervasive Developmental Disorders (MAAP):
- PO Box 524
- Crown Point, IN 46308
- Autism Awareness Center
- General information, real time news articles, world-wide conferences & informational/resource links
- The Elija Foundation
- Provides community educational opportunities that focus on improving the quality of programs and services available to children with autism in the Long Island, NY area:
- 665 Newbridge Road
- Levittown, NY 11756
- Phone: 516 433 4321
- Fax 516 433 4324
General Disability Resources
- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
- ADA Home Page (U.S. Department of Justice)
- ERIC Digest
- Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504
- Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI)
- Workshops, publications, and resources about computer access for people with disabilities
- University of Washington - Disability-Related Resources on the Internet
- A comprehensive list of Web sites and discussion lists related to disability.
- Faculty Room
- The Faculty Room is a site for faculty and administrators at postsecondary institutions to learn about how to create classroom environments and activities that maximize the learning of all students, including those with disabilities. This page is specific to faculty rights.
- PACER Center – Champions for Children with Disabilities
- ADA Q& A: Section 504 & Postsecondary Education
- U.S Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
- Three documents by the Office of Civil Rights describing the rights of wounded warriors to a postsecondary education under the new GI Bill:
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS),
Office of Civil Rights (OCR)
- Discrimination on the Basis of Disability
- U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
- Titles I and V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)