Module: Pervasive Developmental Disorder (Page 1 of 10)

Contents

  1. Definition
  2. Manifestation
  3. Institutional Accommodations
  4. Assistive Technology Accommodations
  5. Teaching Strategies—
    What Can Faculty Do?
    1. Specific Strategies per Disability
    2. General Strategies
    3. Shaping the Environment
  6. Learning Strategies—
    What Can Students do?
  7. Resources
  8. Feedback

Definition

Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) are characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development: reciprocal social interaction skills; communication skills; or the presence of stereotyped behavior, interests, and activities.  PDD may include the following diagnosis: Autistic Disorder, Rhett’s Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, Asperger’s Disorder and PDD not otherwise specified (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

Manifestation

  • Marked impairment in nonverbal behaviors such as eye to eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction; may manifest in poor communication skills with faculty, difficulty expressing one’s needs, inability to effectively participate in group or oral assignments, may unintentionally make inappropriate comments
  • Failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to age level; may manifest in difficulty communicating with peers in class, in leisure activities, and in group settings.
  • Lack of social or emotional reciprocity; may manifest in difficulty working in groups, a lack of engagement in topics others are interested in
  • Delay in or total lack of the development of spoken language; may manifest in difficulty expressing oneself and one’s needs without use of an alternative communication device
  • Inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines and rituals; may manifest in problem behaviors, inability to adapt to and/or cope with changes in routine such as: class schedule, class expectations, class assignments
  • Stereotyped or repetitive motor mannerisms (hand or finger flapping, twisting or complex whole body movements); may manifest with interruptions to class lectures, difficulty sitting for long periods of time, reactions to stressful information/situation
  • Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects; may manifest in person getting “stuck” on a topic or object and needing cues to move on

Institutional Accommodations

  • Alternative format - text books and print materials can be formatted into an alternative format
  • Alternative testing arrangements- extra time; less distracting environment; provision of a reader/scribe; and use of a computer, including adaptive software and hardware.  
  • Note taking support 
  • Priority registration

Teaching Strategies—What Can Faculty do?

Specific Strategies per Disability

Allow Frequent Breaks
Allow the student to take small, frequent breaks.
Break Large Amounts of Information or instructions into smaller segments
Provide Notice of Changes to the class routine or classroom environment
If there is a change in the classroom environment, class assignments, class schedule or any other change in routine; give the student advance notice so as to allow time for him/her to prepare for and become accustomed to the change in advance.
Reinforce Directions and Key course content visually
Allow Student to Take Test(s) in a different location with fewer distractions
The Disability Service Office will assist students in providing alternative arrangements.
Take into Consideration the Student’s lack of ability to interpret social cues
Students with PDD often have difficulty interpreting sarcasm, idioms and body language. They interpret information very literally. If using these types of communication modes, reframe the information for the student by using an alternative, more literal (whenever possible), type of explanation.
Ask the Student to Collect or pass out items
This allows them an opportunity to move around the classroom.

General Strategies

Provide Accessible Course Materials
Ensure that all curriculum materials (syllabus, notes, presentations, assignments, etc.) are available in an accessible format that can be used and manipulated by a computer (Word, HTML, RTF, PDF, etc.). To learn how to create accessible materials, see Training Modules and Tutorials on this website.
Plan Ahead
Select textbooks and materials needed for the semester as early as possible.  Students with disabilities will need time to take class materials to the Disability Service Office for conversion to an alternative format.
Provide Structure
Provide a syllabus and class assignments with clearly delineated expectations and due dates.
Provide Guided Notes on the Web
Prior to lectures, provide students with consistent, structured notes that are in an accessible format. Since students with disabilities sometimes have more difficulty than others in processing new information (especially while simultaneously trying to take notes), having notes ahead of time will increase students’ ability to follow along during class and more effectively process course content. If it is not acceptable for all students to have lecture notes ahead of time, make alternative arrangements for students with disabilities such as emailing lecture notes to the student(s) or setting up an office mailbox where the student(s) can receive notes ahead of time.
Provide Multiple Methods of Presentation
Present information and ideas in multiple ways in order to address different learning styles.
Engage students in multiple ways of learning
Incorporate active teaching/learning methods where possible. For example, problem-based learning activities, community projects, in-class activities and discussions, etc.
Encourage Multiple Methods of Expression
Offer more than one way for students to demonstrate what they have learned in class. For example, students can be given a choice between taking a test, writing a paper, giving an oral presentation, producing a video, etc. Additionally, keep in mind that some students may have difficulty working in a group. Alternative ways of completing a group assignment may need to be considered.
Repeat or paraphrase questions and responses so that the whole class can hear.
This is especially important in large classrooms and when a microphone is used during live and taped presentations.
Highlight Key Points
Provide an overview when introducing a new topic, and highlight key points in a variety of ways throughout class lessons and in written materials. Use visual, verbal and interactive cues for added emphasis. This helps students know what to expect and what is most important, thus improving their ability to achieve the learning objectives.
Summarize Key Points
Summarizing key points at the end of each class will increase the student’s ability to process and integrate new information.
Chunk Information
Break large amounts of information or instructions into smaller segments (“chunking”).
Provide Study Aids
Provide study questions, study guides, and opportunities for questions and answers to help students review and clarify essential course content.
Engage with Students who Self Advocate
Team up with students with disabilities (who disclose their accommodation needs) to determine a plan that is effective for all involved.

Shaping the Environment

Decrease Classroom Distractions
Decrease any excessive visual and/or auditory distractions in the learning environment.
Consider Seating and Positioning
Encourage the student to sit in the front of the class, away from doors, air conditioning units, windows, or any other possible sources of distraction.
Create a Calming Environment
If possible, turn off fluorescent lights and provide natural lighting. Decrease extraneous distracting stimuli. Maintain routine whenever possible such as consistently placing course materials in the same location.

Learning Strategies—What Can the Student do?

Advocate for self
Connect with the disability service office to learn about available services and supports. Communicate with instructors about personal learning style and any individual accommodations that are being requested. Students should also be encouraged to read the ACCESS Self-Advocacy Handbook for College Students with Disabilities, available on this website.
Peer Support
Seek the peer support of other students with disabilities. Check with the Disability Service Office to find out about peer support groups. Seek out classmates (who are respectful of your learning needs) to study with.
Record Class Lectures
Ask professors for permission to record class lectures
Bring Snacks, a Water Bottle or small squeezable object
This can help to reduce fidgeting and maintain focus
Take Small Frequent Breaks
Self-monitor and take breaks as needed. Discuss this with professors at the start of the semester in order to make sure that it is acceptable and will not be perceived as rude behavior.

Resources — Pervasive Developmental Disorder

The West Virginia Autism Training Center
Information about a model college program for students with Asperger Syndrome
Understanding Asperger Syndrome: A Professor’s Guide
A 12 minute video covering a concise introduction to the life of a college student with Asperger Syndrome.
The Global and Regional Asperger Syndrome Partnership (GRASP)
General information and an array of resource links.
A Global Information and Support Network for More Advanced Persons with Autism, Asperger’s Syndrome & Pervasive Developmental Disorders (MAAP):
PO Box 524
Crown Point, IN 46308
219-662-1311
chart@netnitco.net
Autism Awareness Center
General information, real time news articles, world-wide conferences & informational/resource links
The Elija Foundation
Provides community educational opportunities that focus on improving the quality of programs and services available to children with autism in the Long Island, NY area:
665 Newbridge Road
Levittown, NY 11756
Phone: 516 433 4321
Fax 516 433 4324
Elija@optonline.com

General Disability Resources

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
ADA Home Page (U.S. Department of Justice)
Equal Access to Software and Information (EASI)
Workshops, publications, and resources about computer access for people with disabilities
ERIC Digest
Overview of ADA, IDEA, and Section 504
Faculty Room
The Faculty Room is a site for faculty and administrators at postsecondary institutions to learn about how to create classroom environments and activities that maximize the learning of all students, including those with disabilities. This page is specific to faculty rights.
Northern Arizona University
Faculty guide
Northern Illinois University
Faculty training on disability, UDL, and accommodation
Ohio State University
Fast Facts for Faculty Series
PACER Center – Champions for Children with Disabilities
ADA Q& A: Section 504 & Postsecondary Education
Trace Research and Development Center
An interdisciplinary research, development, and resource center on technology and disability.
University of Delaware Applied Science and Engineering Laboratory
A program devoted to development and dissemination of new technologies for people with disabilities.
University of Washington - Disability-Related Resources on the Internet
A comprehensive list of Web sites and discussion lists related to disability.
U.S. Department of Education
Model Notification of Rights under FERPA for Postsecondary Institutions
U.S Department of Education, Office of Civil Rights
Three documents by the Office of Civil Rights describing the rights of wounded warriors to a postsecondary education under the new GI Bill:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS),
Office of Civil Rights (OCR)
Discrimination on the Basis of Disability
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Titles I and V of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA)

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